Bengal Physician Journal

Register      Login

VOLUME 11 , ISSUE 2 ( May-August, 2024 ) > List of Articles


Susceptibility and Identification of Bacillus cereus on Chromogenic Selective Agar Isolated from Hospital Environments

Falah Hasan O AL-Khikani, Kadhim JM Jamin, Ali A Alhusayni

Keywords : Antimicrobial agents, Antibiotics susceptibility, Bacillus cereus, Hospital environments

Citation Information : AL-Khikani FH, Jamin KJ, Alhusayni AA. Susceptibility and Identification of Bacillus cereus on Chromogenic Selective Agar Isolated from Hospital Environments. Bengal Physician Journal 2024; 11 (2):47-50.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10070-8041

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 06-07-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Background: Bacillus (B.) cereus is widely distributed in different environments including hospitals and health centers that considered one of the highly resistant organisms to various antimicrobial agents. This investigation aimed to detect the incidence of B. cereus in hospital environments and their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Materials and methods: A total of 114 swaps were collected from different places in the hospital and divided into two groups, floors 56 (49%) and equipment 58 (51%). Swabs cultured on blood agar, bacteria were identified according to the morphological characteristics and microscopic examination that confirmed by Bacillus ChromoSelect Agar. The antibiotics susceptibility test was carried out by following the Kirby Bauer method by using 7 antibiotics from various classes. Results: From 114 specimens, 48 (42%) were positive for B. cereus. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed highest resistance for ampicillin 33/48 (68.8%), cephalexin 31/48 (64.6%), and imipenem 25/48 (52.1%), and highest sensitive for ciprofloxacin 42/48 (87.5%) and gentamycin 40/48 (83.3%). The high positive correlation between cephalexin and ampicillin (r = 0.78, p = 0.001), tetracycline and ciprofloxacin (r = 0.64, p = 0.001), and no correlation between cephalexin and gentamycin (r = –0.063, p = 0.67). Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of B. cereus in hospital floors and equipment with high resistance to various antibiotics including β-lactams and tetracycline. The monitoring of hospital environments is an important tool in the prevention of hospital-associated infection by B. cereus.

PDF Share
  1. Akamatsu R, Suzuki M, Okinaka K, et al. Novel sequence type in Bacillus cereus strains associated with nosocomial infections and bacteremia, Japan. Emerg infectious dis 2019;25(5):883–890. DOI: 10.3201/eid2505.171890.
  2. Grutsch AA, Nimmer PS, Pittsley RH, et al. Molecular pathogenesis of Bacillus spp., with emphasis on the dairy industry. Fine Focus 2018;4(2):203–222. DOI:
  3. Liu XY, Hu Q, Xu F, et al. Characterization of Bacillus cereus in dairy products in China. Toxins 2020;12(7):454. DOI: 10.3390/toxins12070454.
  4. Rovik A, Pramono H. Isolation and selection of Bacillus cereus specific phages from hospital wastewater. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity 2020;21(7):98. DOI:
  5. Lentz SA, Rivas PM, Cardoso MR, et al. Bacillus cereus as the main causal agent of foodborne outbreaks in Southern Brazil: Data from 11 years. Cad Saúde Pública 2018;34(4):e00057417. DOI: 10.1590/0102-311X00057417.
  6. Macfaddin JF. Biochemical tests for identification medical bacteria. Baltimore. Inc; Williams and Wilkins Press. 2000;21:202.
  7. Tamma PD, Harris PN, Mathers AJ, et al. Deconstructing the 2023 clinical and laboratory standards institute revised piperacillin-tazobactam breakpoints against pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clin Infect Dis 2023;76(10):1868–1870. DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciad012.
  8. AL-Khikani FH, Ayit AS. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa a tenacious uropathogen: Increasing challenges and few solutions. Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal (BBRJ) 2022;6(3):311–318. DOI: 10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_256_21.
  9. Nurain AM, Bilal NE, Ibrahim ME. The frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of nosocomial pathogens recovered from cancer patients and hospital environments. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2015;5(12):1055–1059. DOI:
  10. Al-Khikani FH, Ayit AS. Strong carbol fuchsin stain against Staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa in wound infections. Journal of the Egyptian Women's Dermatologic Society 2024;21(1):81–82. DOI: 10.4103/jewd.jewd_53_23.
  11. Umar D, Basheer B, Husain A, et al. Evaluation of bacterial contamination in a clinical environment. J Int Oral Health 2015;7(1):53–55. PMID: 25709369.
  12. AL-Khikani FH, Kadim MM. Secondary unculturable bacteria associated with Sars-Cov-2: More information are required. Medical Journal of Dr. DY Patil University 2022;15(7):S136–S137. DOI: 10.4103/mjdrdypu.mjdrdypu_698_21.
  13. Glasset B, Herbin S, Granier SA, et al. Bacillus cereus, a serious cause of nosocomial infections: Epidemiologic and genetic survey. PLoS One 2018;13(5):e0194346. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194346.
  14. Kadim MM, AL-Dahmoshi HO, AL-Khikani FH. Sepsis biomarkers: Current information and future visions. Microbes and Infectious Diseases 2024;5(1):201–210. DOI: 10.21608/MID.2023.205161.1508.
  15. Al-Habibi M, Hefny HM, El-Moghazy AN. Molecular characterization and prevalence of Bacillus species isolated from Egyptian hospitals. Microbes and Infectious Diseases 2022;3(3):625–638. DOI: 10.21608/MID.2022.139527.1316.
  16. Okwudili AC, Chukwusom GV, Uzoamaka EC. Isolation and characterization of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens present in hospital Environment within Awka Metropolis. 2023. DOI: 10.59298/idosr/jbcp/23/10.126.
  17. Zhang Y, Chen M, Yu P, et al. Prevalence, virulence feature, antibiotic resistance and MLST typing of Bacillus cereus isolated from retail aquatic products in China. Front Microbiol 2020;11:1513. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.01513.
  18. Osama R, Ahmed M, Abdulmawjood A, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Bacillus cereus in milk and dairy products. Mansoura Veterinary Medical Journal 2020;21(2):11–18. DOI: 10.21608/MVMJ.2020.2.202.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.