Bengal Physician Journal

Register      Login

VOLUME 7 , ISSUE 1 ( January-April, 2020 ) > List of Articles


Gut Microbiota and Extraintestinal Disorders: Are They Interrelated?

Atanu Chandra, Aritra K Ray, Uddalak Chakraborty, Arkapravo Hati

Keywords : Extraintestinal diseases, Gut microbiota, Irritable bowel syndrome,Dysbiosis

Citation Information : Chandra A, Ray AK, Chakraborty U, Hati A. Gut Microbiota and Extraintestinal Disorders: Are They Interrelated?. Bengal Physician Journal 2020; 7 (1):8-11.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10070-7012

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 18-02-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Normally in health, the commensal gut microbiota lives in a perfectly symbiotic relationship with the host. Initial bacterial colonization occurs through the maternal vaginal/fecal flora and oral feeding. When this symbiotic relationship is lost due to several factors, the condition is known as “dysbiosis.” Dysbiosis is associated with the pathogenesis of intestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and coeliac disease, but recent studies have shown that it has also been implicated in extraintestinal disorders, such as allergy, asthma, cardiovascular disease, obesity, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, and some mental disorders and cancers. The proposed mechanism for the development of such disorders is disruption of the pivotal mutual relationship between the gut microbiome, the metabolic products produced by them, and the host immune response. In this review article, we would like to highlight the role of gut microbiota in the development of extraintestinal diseases.

PDF Share
  1. Lyon L. ‘All disease begins in the gut’: was Hippocrates right? Brain 2018;141:e20. DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy017.
  2. Fasano A. All disease begins in the (leaky) gut: role of zonulin-mediated gut permeability in the pathogenesis of some chronic inflammatory diseases. F1000Res 2020;9:F1000 Faculty Rev-69. DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.20510.1.
  3. Guinane CM, Cotter PD. Role of the gut microbiota in health and chronic gastrointestinal disease: understanding a hidden metabolic organ. Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2013;6:295–308. DOI: 10.1177/1756283X13482996.
  4. Shreiner AB, Kao JY, Young VB. The gut microbiome in health and in disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2015;31:69-75. DOI: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000139.
  5. Lozupone CA, Stombaugh JI, Gordon JI, et al. Diversity, stability and resilience of the human gut microbiota. Nature 2012;489:220–230. DOI: 10.1038/nature11550.
  6. Houghteling PD, Walker WA. Why is initial bacterial colonization of the intestine important to infants’ and children's health? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2015;60:294–307. DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000000597.
  7. Jakobsson HE, Abrahamsson TR, Jenmalm MC, et al. Decreased gut microbiota diversity, delayed Bacteroidetes colonisation and reduced Th1 responses in infants delivered by caesarean section. Gut 2014;63:559–566. DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2012-303249.
  8. Singh RK, Chang HW, Yan D, et al. Influence of diet on the gut microbiome and implications for human health. J Transl Med 2017;15:73. DOI: 10.1186/s12967-017-1175-y.
  9. Tremaroli V, Bäckhed F. Functional interactions between the gut microbiota and host metabolism. Nature 2012;489:242–249. DOI: 10.1038/nature11552.
  10. Belizário JE, Faintuch J, Garay-Malpartida M. Gut microbiome dysbiosis and immunometabolism: new Frontiers for treatment of metabolic diseases. Mediators Inflamm. 2018;2018:2037838. DOI: 10.1155/2018/2037838.
  11. Ostaff MJ, Stange EF, Wehkamp J. Antimicrobial peptides and gut microbiota in homeostasis and pathology. EMBO Mol Med 2013;5:1465–1483. DOI: 10.1002/emmm.201201773.
  12. Carabotti M, Scirocco A, Maselli MA, et al. The gut-brain axis: interactions between enteric microbiota, central and enteric nervous systems. Ann Gastroenterol 2015;28:203–209. PMID: 25830558, PMCID: PMC4367209.
  13. Rhee SH, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. Principles and clinical implications of the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009;6:306–314. DOI: 10.1038/nrgastro.2009.35.
  14. Koloski NA, Jones M, Kalantar J, et al. The brain-gut pathway in functional gastrointestinal disorders is bidirectional: a 12-year prospective population-based study. Gut 2012;61:1284–1290. DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2011-300474.
  15. Vajro P, Paolella G, Fasano A. Microbiota and gut-liver axis: their influences on obesity and obesity-related liver disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2013;56:461–468. DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e318284abb5.
  16. Ilan Y. Leaky gut and the liver: a role for bacterial translocation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. World J Gastroenterol 2012;18: 2609–2618. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i21.2609.
  17. Round JL, Palm NW. Causal effects of the microbiota on immune-mediated diseases. Sci Immunol 2018;3:eaao1603. DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aao1603.
  18. Fitzgibbon G, Mills KHG. The microbiota and immune-mediated diseases: opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Eur J Immunol 2020;50:326–337. DOI: 10.1002/eji.201948322.
  19. Gurung M, Li Z, You H, et al. Role of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology. EBioMedicine. 2020;51:102590. DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.11.051.
  20. Cox AJ, West NP, Cripps AW. Obesity, inflammation, and the gut microbiota. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3:207–15. DOI: 10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70134-2.
  21. Lee SY, Lee E, Park YM, et al. Microbiome in the gut-skin axis in atopic dermatitis. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2018;10:354–362. DOI: 10.4168/aair.2018.10.4.354.
  22. Marsland BJ, Trompette A, Gollwitzer ES. The gut-lung axis in respiratory disease. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2015;12(Suppl. 2):S150–S156. DOI: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201503-133AW.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.