Citation Information :
Ghosh K, Pal J, Hati A, Paria TK, Mahato S, Bhattacharjee MS. Prevalence of Frailty Syndrome and Chronic Diseases among the Elderly Population: A Hospital-based Study from a Tertiary Care Center. Bengal Physician Journal 2021; 8 (1):3-8.
Aim and objective: This study is aimed to evaluate the prevalence of chronic diseases and frailty which can inform the next generation of models to understand frailty as an emergent property in a complex adaptive system.
Materials and methods: A cross-sectional observational study was planned to evaluate chronic diseases and frailty upon 200 patients of more than 60 years of age. Patients were evaluated for having frailty syndrome by frailty-defining criteria as defined by Fried and colleagues, along with the presence of some chronic diseases.
Results: The mean age of patients was 71.61 ± 6.65 years and 76.5% of the study population were male. Weight loss, exhaustion, low physical activity, slowness, and reduced grip strength were seen among 40, 28, 11.5, 17.5, and 49.5% of the patients, respectively. It was observed that 78 (39.0%), 74 (37%), and 48 (24%) patients were in nonfrail, prefrail, and frailty group, respectively. Also, 73.5% of the total study population had at least one chronic disease and 33 (16.5%) patients had more than two chronic diseases. Chronic diseases were mostly present among the frail group.
Conclusion: Frailty syndrome was very common among the elderly population in our study. Hypertension, diabetes, and osteoarthritis were the commonest comorbidities in the geriatric population of our study.
Colledge NR. Ageing and disease. In: Boon NA, Colledge NR, Walker BR, et al., editors. Davidsons text book of medicine. London; 2006. p. 64–71.
Clegg A, Young J, Iliffe S, et al. Frailty in elderly people. Lancet 2013;381(9868):752–762. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62167-9.
World Health Organization. WHO clinical consortium on healthy ageing: topic focus: frailty and intrinsic capacity: report of consortium meeting, 1–2 December 2016 in Geneva, Switzerland. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2017.
Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, et al. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A BiolSci Med Sci 2001;56(3):M146–M156. DOI: 10.1093/gerona/56.3.m146.
De Martinis M, Franceschi C, Monti D, et al. Inflammation markers predicting frailty and mortality in the elderly. Exp Mol Pathol 2006;80(3):219–227. DOI: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2005.11.004..
Hertoghe T. The “multiple hormone deficiency” theory of aging: is human senescence caused mainly by multiple hormone deficiencies? Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005;1057:448–465. DOI: 10.1196/annals.1322.035.
Leng S, Chaves P, Koenig K, et al. Serum interleukin-6 and hemoglobin as physiological correlates in the geriatric syndrome of frailty: a pilot study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50(7):1268–1271. DOI: 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50315.x.
Roubenoff R. Molecular basis of inflammation: relationships between catabolic cytokines, hormones, energy balance, and muscle. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2008;32(6):630–632. DOI: 10.1177/0148607108324875.
Qu T, Yang H, Walston JD, et al. Upregulated monocytic expression of CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL-10) and its relationship with serum interleukin-6 levels in the syndrome of frailty. Cytokine. 2009;46(3):319–324. DOI: 10.1016/j.cyto.2009.02.015.
Hubbard RE, O'Mahony MS, Calver BL, et al. Plasma esterases and inflammation in ageing and frailty. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008;64(9):895–900. DOI: 10.1007/s00228-008-0499-1.
Leng SX, Xue QL, Tian J, et al. Associations of neutrophil and monocyte counts with frailty in community-dwelling disabled older women: results from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I. Exp Gerontol 2009;44(8):511–516. DOI: 10.1016/j.exger.2009.05.005.
Leng SX, Xue QL, Tian J, et al. Inflammation and frailty in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55(6):864–871. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01186.x.
Hajek A, Bock JO, Saum KU, et al. Frailty and healthcare costs-longitudinal results of a prospective cohort study. Age Ageing 2018;47(2):233–241. DOI: 10.1093/ageing/afx157.
Bock JO, König HH, Brenner H, et al. Associations of frailty with health care costs – results of the ESTHER cohort study. BMC Health Serv Res 2016;16(1):128. DOI: 10.1186/s12913-016-1360-3.
Salinas-Rodriguez A, Manrique-Espinoza B, Heredia-Pi I, et al. Healthcare costs of frailty: implications for long-term care. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019;20(1):102–103.e2. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2018.09.019.
Ensrud KE, Kats AM, Schousboe JT, et al. Frailty phenotype and healthcare costs and utilization in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 2018;66(7):1276–1283. DOI: 10.1111/jgs.15381.
Simpson KN, Seamon BA, Hand BN, et al. Effect of frailty on resource use and cost for Medicare patients. J Comp Eff Res 2018;7(8):817–825. DOI: 10.2217/cer-2018-0029.
Mulasso A, Roppolo M, Rabaglietti E. Physical frailty, disability, and dynamics in health perceptions: a preliminary mediation model. Clin Interv Aging 2016;11:275–278. DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S97507.
de Labra C, Maseda A, Lorenzo-Lopez L, et al. Social factors and quality of life aspects on frailty syndrome in community-dwelling older adults: the verisaude study. BMC Geriatr 2018;18(1):66. DOI: 10.1186/s12877-018-0757-8.
Chang SF, Lin PL. Frail phenotype and mortality prediction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int J Nurs Stud 2015;52(8):1362–1374. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2015.04.005.
Avila-Funes JA, Amieva H, Barberger-Gateau P, et al. Cognitive impairment improves the predictive validity of the phenotype of frailty for adverse health outcomes: the three-city study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2009;57(3):453–461. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.02136.x.
Santos-Eggimann B, Cuenoud P, Spagnoli J, et al. Prevalence of frailty in middle-aged and older community-dwelling Europeans living in 10 countries. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2009;64(6):675–681. DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glp012.
Alvarado BE, Zunzunegui MV, Beland F, et al. Life course social and health conditions linked to frailty in Latin American older men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008;63(12):1399–1406. DOI: 10.1093/gerona/63.12.1399.
Bandeen-Roche K, Xue QL, Ferrucci L, et al. Phenotype of frailty: characterization in the women's health and aging studies. J Gerontol A BiolSci Med Sci 2006;61(3):262–266. DOI: 10.1093/gerona/61.3.262.
Hogan DB, MacKnight C, Bergman H, Steering Committee CIoFaA. Models, definitions, and criteria of frailty. Aging Clin Exp Res 2003;15(3 Suppl.):1–29. DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-811353-0.00003-8.
Ensrud KE, Ewing SK, Taylor BC, et al. Comparison of 2 frailty indexes for prediction of falls, disability, fractures, and death in older women. Arch Intern Med 2008;168(4):382–389. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2007.113.
Sarkisian CA, Gruenewald TL, John Boscardin W, et al. Preliminaryevidence for sub-dimensions of geriatric frailty: the MacArthur study ofsuccessful aging. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008;56(12):2292–2297. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.02041.x.
Walston J, Hadley EC, Ferrucci L, et al. Research agenda for frailty in older adults: toward a better understanding of physiology and etiology: summary from the American Geriatrics Society/National Institute on Aging Research Conference on Frailty in Older Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006;54(6):991–1001. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2006.00745.x.
Varadhan R, Seplaki CL, Xue QL, et al. Stimulus-response paradigm for characterizing the loss of resilience in homeostatic regulation associated with frailty. Mech Ageing 2008;129:666–670. DOI: 10.1016/j.mad.2008.09.013.
Boyd CM, Xue QL, Simpson CF, et al. Frailty, hospitalization, and progression of disability in a cohort of disabled older women. Am J Med 2005;118(11):1225–1231. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.01.062.
Taylor R. Measuring healthy days, population assessment of health-related quality of life. CDC; 2000.
Cigolle CT, Lee PG, Langa KM, et al. Geriatric conditions develop in middle-aged adults with diabetes. J Gen Intern Med 2011;26(3):272–279. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-010-1510-y.
Tsou IY, Ching HH. The bone and joint decade 2000-2010 for prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disease. Ann Acad Med Singap 2002;31(1):69–70. PMID: 11885499.
Graham JE, Snih SA, Berges IM, et al. Frailty and 10-year mortality in community-living Mexican American older adults. Gerontology 2009;55(6):644–651. DOI: 10.1159/000235653.