Bengal Physician Journal

Register      Login

VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 2 ( May-August, 2022 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Sleep Quality in the Admitted Elderly: A Prospective Observational Study in Eastern India

Nikhil Era, Ritika Singh, Pankaj Hans, Uttam Paul, Susanta Bordoloi

Keywords : Elderly, Hospitalization, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Sleep quality

Citation Information : Era N, Singh R, Hans P, Paul U, Bordoloi S. Sleep Quality in the Admitted Elderly: A Prospective Observational Study in Eastern India. Bengal Physician Journal 2022; 9 (2):30-34.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10070-7085

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 31-08-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Background: With declining age, elderly admissions are encountered with sleep disturbances during the hospital stay. Poor sleep health can adversely affect many organ functions causing a weakened immune system, increased adverse cardiovascular events, impaired cognitive function, and increased fall risk and frailty in the elderly. The present study tried to address the issue of sleep quality in admitted elderly patients in a hospital setup. Materials and methods: A prospective observational study was conducted among the elderly inpatients of a few tertiary care setups in Eastern India. Patients were personally interviewed to evaluate the history of sleep quality at home, sleep quality after the first and the third days of admission, and potential associated factors. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess the sleep quality in the subjects. Patient-reported factors contributing to poor sleep health were noted. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: Sleep efficiency is significantly affected by hospital stay. The global PSQI score conferred poor sleep quality in 51.05% elderly in baseline, 58.64% after the first night of hospitalization, and 62.86% after the third night of hospitalization. Sleep quality was assessed using PSQI questionnaire. Prolonged sleep latency and decreased total sleep duration were noted among study participants at the third time point in comparison with the first. Factors like doctor–nurse interruption, pain, light, and noise as some of the most frequently reported factors contributed to poorer sleep. Higher age, infrequent physical activity, previous history of hospitalization, anxiety, and depressive state were significantly associated with higher odds of poor sleep quality. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that overall sleep quality was significantly affected during hospital stay in older adults. Patient-reported factors contributing toward poorer sleep health must be intervened in order to achieve better treatment outcomes in the elderly.

PDF Share
  1. Rasch B, Born J. About sleep's role in memory. Physiol Rev 2013;93(2):681–766. DOI: 10.1152/physrev.00032.2012
  2. Zielinski MR, McKenna JT, McCarley RW. Functions and mechanisms of sleep. AIMS Neurosci 2016;3(1):67–104. DOI: 10.3934/Neuroscience.2016.1.67.
  3. Edwards BA, O'Driscoll DM, Ali A, et al. Aging and sleep: Physiology and pathophysiology. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2010;31(5):618–633. DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1265902.
  4. Kulpatcharapong S, Chewcharat P, Ruxrungtham K, et al. Sleep quality of hospitalized patients, contributing factors, and prevalence of associated disorders. Sleep Disord 2020;2020:8518396. DOI: 10.1155/2020/8518396.
  5. Wesselius HM, van den Ende ES, Alsma J, et al. Quality and quantity of sleep and factors associated with sleep disturbance in hospitalized patients. JAMA Intern Med 2018;178(9):1201–1208. DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.2669.
  6. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research; Colten HR, Altevogt BM, editors. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2006. 3, Extent and Health Consequences of Chronic Sleep Loss and Sleep Disorders. Available from:
  7. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, et al. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI): A new instrument for psychiatric research and practice. Psychiatry Res 1989;28(2):193–213. DOI: 10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4.
  8. Hoyl MT, Alessi CA, Harker JO, et al. Development and testing of a five-item version of the geriatric depression scale. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47(7):873–878. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1999.tb03848.x.
  9. Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, et al. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder. Arch Intern Med 2006;166(10):1092–1097. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092.
  10. Suzuki K, Miyamoto M, Hirata K. Sleep disorders in the elderly: Diagnosis and management. J Gen Fam Med 2017;18(2):61–71. DOI: 10.1002/jgf2.27.
  11. Li J, Vitiello MV, Gooneratne NS. Sleep in normal aging. Sleep Med Clin 2018;13(1):1–11. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsmc.2017.09.001.
  12. Chaudary J, Jain B, Bhadoria AS, et al. Assessment of sleep habits and quality of sleep among elderly residing in rural area of Dehradun: A community-based cross-sectional survey. Natl J Community Med 2020;11(2):98–102. DOI: 10.5455/njcm.20200227095017.
  13. Das S, Roy RN, Das DK, et al. Sleep quality and its various correlates: A community-based study among geriatric population in a community development block of Purba Bardhaman district, West Bengal. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9(3):1510–1516. DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1021_19.
  14. Adib-Hajbaghery M, Izadi-Avanji F, Akbari H. Quality of sleep and its related risk factors in hospitalized older patients in Kashan's Hospitals, Iran 2009. Iranian J Nursing Midwifery Res 2012;17(6):414–420. PMCID: PMC3733285.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.