Introduction: Anorexia in elderly is an important geriatric syndrome. It is defined as the loss of appetite and/or decreased food intake in late life.
Mechanism: It is due to physical factors and chronic medical diseases. Delayed gastric emptying and colonic stasis also contribute to anorexia. Hormones like ghrelin and leptin as well as certain hypothalamic neurons like the nucleus arcuatus play an important role in its pathogenesis.
Consequences of anorexia of aging: Anorexia in elderly leads to malnutrition, frailty and sarcopenia resulting in increased mortality.
Assessment: It is assessed by the mini nutritional assessment and other tools.
Treatment: Anorexia in elderly is treated by food manipulation and nutritional supplementation, although there is no effective agent.
Conclusion: Anorexia of aging is an important challenge to the treating physician. An adequate amount of food must be ensured in the elderly to prevent weight loss particularly in the frail subjects.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a novel technique to support patients with respiratory and/or cardiac failure. Its use is rising very fast in critical care units in our country. This article aims to give a brief overview of the technology, its uses, and the problems.
Background: Qualitative research is a comparatively new approach to research, and more so in the field of medical science in particular. There is a common myth that this type of research is not very scientifically approved or reliable. Also, it is particularly applicable in the field of social sciences, and not so much in a pure scientific arena, particularly, one like medical science. This article is written, therefore, to elaborate on the scientific background and the theoretical approaches to qualitative research.
Descriptive design: Descriptive or exploratory design is a very commonly used approach to research, in which the researcher simply wants to explore or identify what is going on in a given situation. The team members have to devise an interview schedule that has several short open-ended questions to focus on their inquiry.
Interpretive design: The three most common approaches to interpretive design are ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory. All three are now used in health and social care research. These three approaches to research use inductive reasoning. However, the particular perspective from which they seek to do this will vary according to orientation.
Ethnography: It is an approach to research influenced by the anthropological tradition, in which the researcher seeks to understand human behavior from the perspective of the individual in a given culture. Phenomenology is an approach to research that emphasizes and seeks to explore the real-life experience of an individual.
Grounded theory: It is an approach to research in which the aim is to collect and analyze qualitative data in order to develop a theory that is “grounded” in the data. Grounded theory is rather different from the other approaches of qualitative research because it uses both inductive and deductive reasoning.
Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be said that qualitative research is a highly scientific method of research involving modern and acceptable statistical analysis and inference also, and the results that we get can be applied beneficially to further researches, generation of treatment, diagnostic and public health strategies and most importantly framing new social, scientific and governance policies.
Infections in immunosuppressed patients are always a big challenge and even with the best of care, there is a lot of mortality and morbidity. This article describes the experience of Dr Christiaan Barnard and his team during and after the first cardiac transplant of 1967. Relevant points useful for today's clinicians are discussed in detail.
A preoperative checkup is necessary for the patients who are preparing for surgery. The opinion of the internist is vital to decide the suitability of major and minor surgeries by assessing the health status of patients. There are different key parameters to be monitored and recorded, which includes a proper history, thorough clinical examination and an appropriate laboratory checkup. By assessing pre and perioperative risks, the role of physician is to optimize patient's medical conditions to reduce morbidity and mortality. This article discusses these topics at length and provides some recommendations for fellow practitioners.